Linux Disks and File systems

We can obtain filesystem information in various ways –

mount command: This informs us of the file systems mounted at that moment. [whether they are real devices or virtual file systems such as /proc]. We may also obtain this information from /etc/mtab file. 

df -k : command. This informs us of the storage file systems and allows us to verify the used space and available space. Its a basic command for controlling the available disk space.

To start with, it is typical to find the actual Linux file systems created in various partitions of the disks.

The typical configuration is to have 2 partitions – that corresponding to “/” (root file system) and that  corresponding to the swap file. Although, in more professional configurations, it is usual to separate partitions with differentiated parts of the system, for example –

/  /boot /usr /var /tmp /opt /home swap

That will certainly be found mounted from different sources (different disks or even network in some cases).

The idea is to clearly separate the static and dynamic parts of the system, so as to make it easier to extend the partitions when any overload problems arise.

Mount point: 


mount -t iso9660 -r /dev/cd0 /mnt/cdrommount -t <filesystem-type> -r <device> <mount-point> 

This would mount the CD-ROM (if it is the IDE that is in the second IDE in master mode) at point /mnt/cdrom.  
The mount and umount commands mount or umount all the available systems. The file /etc/mtab maintains a list of the mounted systems at a specific point in time. This file can be consulted or a “mount” command without arguments returns the same information.
In order to modify the access rights to a directory or file, we have the commands –
1. chown: change file owner
2. chgrp: change file owner group
3. chmod: change specific permissions (rwx)of the files
The commands also provide a recursive option (-R) if affecting a directory.











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